ABSALOM (1) Judah Maccabaeus' ambassador in 164 B.C.E. (II Macc. 11:17). (2) The father of Mattathias and Jonathan, who both held high commands during the Maccabean wars (I Macc. 11:70 and 13:11; Jos., Ant., 13:161, 202). (3) The younger son of John Hyrcanus I. Upon the death of his father, Absalom was imprisoned by his brother Aristobulus I and released when Alexander Yannai ascended the throne. He played a prominent part in the defense of Jerusalem against Pompey, but was captured by him (Jos., Ant., 14:71; cf. Wars, 1:154). (4) Jewish partisan leader at the beginning of the Roman War. He was associated with the Sicarii leader menahem b. judah , and called by Josephus "his most eminent supporter in his tyranny." When eleazar son of Ananias, the captain of the   Temple, turned against Menahem and assassinated him, Absalom shared his fate (Jos., Wars, 2:448). Because of his views regarding the Zealots and Qumran, cecil roth identified him with the Absalom mentioned in the Pesher ("Commentary") on Habakkuk found at Qumran (1 QpHab), but few scholars would accept this. (5) The name Absalom appears on an ossuary from Givat ha-Mivtar and in a tomb inscription from Silwan, both dated to before 70 C.E. The name "abshi," perhaps an abbreviation of Absalom, appears in a deed on papyrus of 131 C.E. from Wadi Muraba'at. (6) A Late Hellenistic tomb monument named after Absalom, David's rebellious son (II Sam. 3:3), is situated in the Kidron Valley, west of the Temple Mount, in Jerusalem. The style of the tomb, which shows Orientalizing architectural influences, suggests a first century B.C.E. date for the time it was hewn. Recent work on this monument by J. Zias and E. Puech has brought to light a Byzantine inscription in Greek next to the entrance to the tomb which refers not to Absalom but to the father of John the Baptist. It reads: "This is the tomb of Zachariah, martyr, very pious priest, father of John." -BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Roth, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Historical Approach (19652), 13–14, 74 ff. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Ilan, Lexicon of Jewish Names in Late Antiquity. Part I: Palestine 330 B.C.E–200 C.E. (2002). (Abraham Schalit and Cecil Roth / Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Absalom — or Avshalom ( he. אַבְשָלוֹם Father/Leader of/is peace or Salem is my Father , Standard Hebrew Avšalom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇšālôm), in the Bible, is the third son of David, king of Israel. He was deemed the most beautified man in the kingdom (2… …   Wikipedia

  • Absalom — • Article covers Absalom, son of David; Absalom, father of Mathathias; and Absalom, father of Jonathan Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Absalom     Absalom      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ABSALOM — (Heb. אַבְשָׁלוֹם, אַבְשָׁלֹם, אֲבִישָׁלוֹם), third son of david , born during his reign in Hebron, probably about 1007/06 B.C.E. In the Bible Absalom was the son of Maacah, the daughter of King Talmai of Geshur. When his half brother Amnon… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Absalom — Absalom, 3. Sohn Davids von der Maecha, Tochter des Königs von Geschur, von großer Schönheit aber hochfahrendem, rachsüchtigem Wesen, erschlug seinen Bruder Ammon meuchlerisch, weil er Abss. Schwester Thamar mißbraucht hatte und entfloh zu seinem …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Absalom — (hebr., d.i. Vater des Friedens), Sohn Davids von der Maecha, Tochter des Königs Talmai von Gesur. Durch die Ermordung seines Stiefbruders Amnon, welcher A s rechte Schwester Thamur geschändet hatte, hatte sich A. Davids Zorn zugezogen u. war… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Absălom — (hebr., »Vater des Friedens«), drittgeborner Sohn Davids, ein schöner Mann, wegen seiner Leutseligkeit beim Volke beliebt, rächte die Schmach seiner Schwester Thamar an seinem ältesten Bruder Amnon durch dessen Ermordung und ward deshalb von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Absalom — m Biblical: name (probably meaning ‘father of peace’ in Hebrew) of the third son of King David, who rebelled against him and was eventually killed when he was caught by the hair in an oak tree as he fled, to the great grief of his father (2… …   First names dictionary

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